Provinces and territories provide and provide equivalent federal funding to the National Housing Strategy through bilateral agreements with the Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation. This deferral was largely done through a series of bilateral agreements between the federal and provincial/territorial governments. Intergovernmental agreements also provide for the provision of settlement and integration services to newcomers in a number of provinces. The result has been a diffusion of government measures in the area of immigration – a development that can be considered compatible with the dynamics of Canadian federalism, but raises some concerns. Habitat and integration programs increased significantly over the following decades. Unlike many other countries of immigration where these services are provided by public servants, they are provided in Canada by a large number of non-governmental organizations, often referred to as service provider organizations (SPOs) – through quasi-contractual contribution agreements. CIC currently has more than 500 such agreements across the country. In addition, some of the services provided by PHO are funded by provincial governments, foundations and other non-profit organizations such as the United Way. Other provinces and territories have agreements that cover more specific topics to meet their respective needs. For example, British Columbia, Alberta, Saskatchewan, Manitoba, Ontario, New Brunswick, Prince Edward Island, Newfoundland and Labrador, the Northwest Territories and Yukon have signed provincial-nominal agreements allowing them to appoint immigrants to meet specific labour market needs. Each agreement is negotiated separately with the province or territory to address unique needs and priorities. Citizenship and Immigration Canada (CIC) is responsible for assessing and deciding on proposals for exemptions to LMIA submitted by a province or territory for major investment projects, in accordance with the criteria set out in their agreement or annex for foreign workers. While in all agreements and annexes, LMIA`s exemption criteria for large investment projects are the norm for foreign workers, LMIA`s specific exemptions are project-based and therefore vary from jurisdiction to jurisdiction.

The new bilateral agreements signed with the provinces and territories are presented below. With regard to colonization and integration services, there has also been a clear abandonment of purely federal responsibility. The Canadian government began funding settlement services in 1949 with a program to help refugees and Canadian soldier families adjust to Canadian life. In 1953, it signed an agreement with all the provinces, with the exception of Quebec, on specific language training. The first intergovernmental agreement on immigration was signed as early as 1868 to allow provincial governments to appoint immigration officers abroad. However, for most of the next century, the federal government managed immigration as a national program, with very limited provincial law. In a 1974 Green Paper, the federal government stated that it intended to involve provincial governments more in immigration matters. To support the funding, Infrastructure Canada (on behalf of the Government of Canada) worked closely with Canada`s 13 provinces and territories to negotiate and sign funding agreements.

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